Idaho carbon dating
Idaho carbon dating - Sex webcam list
And some already argue that the savings from removing the four dams on the lower Snake River and spending less to mitigate the damage to salmon exceeds the dams’ benefit to the electric grid and economy.
“The industry is going through a fundamental change and nothing is standing still,” said Shauna Mc Reynolds, executive director of Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee.
The dams hinder the salmon that spawn in the best habitat in the Northwest — in Central Idaho.
And this stronghold has the highest, coolest mountain streams that may keep salmon surviving in a warmer, drier future.
It also will continue to play a crucial role as quick-response electricity at times of peak demand.
But the dams still have strong political and cultural pull.
By 1995, less than 800,000 returned, and Columbia Basin salmon were listed under the Endangered Species Act. District Judge Michael Simon has now ordered the agencies to conduct a new environmental review and plan, with an immediate plan for operating the dams due by 2018 and a final decision on a long-term plan by 2021.
Three federal judges since 1994 ordered the BPA, the Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation to take increasingly stronger steps to reduce or offset the effects of the dams on salmon. Simon said that plan must include a review of keeping or breaching the four Snake dams, the latter being an option that many scientists argue is the best way to rescue those imperiled salmon.
Twenty years ago, arguments against breaching those dams centered around the loss of crucial power supplied to the region.
But as the role of the dams in the Northwest hydrosystem changes, so does their role in the political and environmental ecosystem.
The Bonneville Power Administration pays wind producers to turn off their generators at times of surplus power in the spring.
The greatest value these four run-of-the-river dams provide is “sustained peaking capacity,” which means the ability to meet energy needs for four to eight hours when a cold spell or heat wave produces a big surge.
The Columbia River system once sustained 8 million to 16 million salmon returning annually.