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Rainfall is extremely rare in the north but profuse in the south, which has a wet season lasting six to nine months.
In 1953 the British-Egyptian rulers agreed to sign a three-year preparation for independence, and on 1 January 1956 Sudan officially became independent.In 1885 the Mahdi's troops defeated the Egyptians and the British in the city of Khartoum.The Mahdi died in 1885 and was succeeded by Khalifa Abdullahi. In the Middle Ages, Arabs named the area that is present-day Sudan "Bilad al-Sudan," or "land of the black people." The north is primarily Arab Muslims, whereas the south is largely black African, and not Muslim.There is strong animosity between the two groups and each has its own culture and traditions. It shares borders with Egypt, Libya, Chad, the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Kenya, and Ethiopia.Khartoum is the center for commerce and government; Omdurman is the official capital; and North Khartoum is the industrial center, home to 70 percent of Sudan's industry. Six percent are Beja, 2 percent are foreign, and the remaining 1 percent are composed of other ethnicities. These include the Jamala and the Nubians in the north; the Beja in the Red Sea Hills; and several Nilotic peoples in the south, including the Azande, Dinka, Nuer, and Shilluk. There are more than one hundred different indigenous languages spoken in Sudan, including Nubian, Ta Bedawie, and dialects of Nilotic and Nilo-Hamitic languages.
Despite a devastating civil war and a number of natural disasters, the population has an average growth rate of 3 percent. Arabic is the official language, spoken by more than half of the population.
, when the city of Meroe was ransacked by the Ethiopians.
At about this time, three Christian kingdoms—Nobatia, Makurra, and Alwa—came into power in the area.
English is being phased out as a foreign language taught in the schools, although it is still spoken by some people. The flag adopted at independence had three horizontal stripes: blue, symbolizing the Nile River; yellow, for the desert; and green, for the forests and vegetation.
This flag was replaced in 1970 with one more explicitly Islamic in its symbolism.
Also, European and Arab traders who came to the area looking for ivory established a slave-trade market.