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Thus, whereas for Plato the crown of the good in general, or Goodness itself (the Good), for Aristotle it is the good for human beings; and whereas for Plato the genus to which a thing belongs possesses a greater reality than the thing itself, for Aristotle the opposite is true.Plato’s emphasis on the ideal, and Aristotle’s on the worldly, informs Raphael’s depiction of the two philosophers in the (1508–11).
His school fostered research not just in philosophy narrowly conceived but in a wide range of endeavours that today would be called mathematical or scientific. By far the most important disciple of Socrates, however, was Plato, a scion of one of the most noble Athenian families, who could trace his ancestry back to the last king of Athens and to Solon ( The son of Ariston (his father) and Perictione (his mother), Plato was born in the year after the death of the great Athenian statesman Pericles.
A notable artifact of the work of translators and scholars is a device of selective capitalization sometimes employed in English.
To mark the objects of Plato’s special interest, the forms, some follow a convention in which one capitalizes the term Form (or the Good, and so on.
The work of the translator imports another layer of similar judgments.
Some Greek sentences admit of several fundamentally different grammatical construals with widely differing senses, and many ancient Greek words have no neat English equivalents.
After the death of Socrates, Plato may have traveled extensively in Greece, Italy, and Egypt, though on such particulars the evidence is uncertain.
The followers of Aristotle was also a member of the Academy.Whereas other thinkers—and Plato himself in certain passages—used the term without any precise technical force, Plato in the course of his career came to devote specialized attention to these entities.As he conceived them, they were accessible not to the senses but to the mind alone, and they were the most important constituents of reality, underlying the existence of the sensible world and giving it what intelligibility it has.The works of Plato commonly referred to as “Socratic” represent the sort of thing the historical Socrates was doing.He would challenge men who supposedly had expertise about some facet of human excellence to give accounts of these matters—variously of courage, piety, and so on, or at times of the whole of “virtue”—and they typically failed to maintain their position.Writing in Plato’s time did not employ word divisions and punctuation or the present-day distinction between capital and lowercase letters.