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Equipment cheating can also occur via the use of external aids in situations where equipment is prohibited - such as in American football via the use of stickum on the hands of receivers, making the ball easier to catch.An example of this is Hall of Famer Jerry Rice, who admitted to regularly & illegally using "stickum" throughout his career, calling into question the integrity of his receiving records. For example, in professional bodybuilding, cheating is now estimated to be so universal that it is now considered impossible to engage in professional competition without cheating and the use of supposedly banned substances; bodybuilders who refuse to take banned substances now compete in natural bodybuilding leagues. One of the most common forms of this is the use of bribery and kickbacks in the player recruitment process.
The report was made in June 2005 by Rutgers University professor Donald Mc Cabe for The Center for Academic Integrity.A person described as a "cheat" doesn't necessarily cheat all the time, but rather, relies on unfair tactics to the point of acquiring a reputation for it.Academic cheating is a significantly common occurrence in high schools and colleges in the United States.During the 2007 Formula One Season, driver Fernando Alonso was labelled a "cheat" for exchanging confidential information between the teams of Scuderia Ferrari and Mclaren, a form of collusion.An example of cheating via judging collusion occurred in the 2002 Winter Olympics figure skating scandal when the Russian team was awarded a gold medal over the Canadian team in an alleged vote-swapping judging deal; the Canadian team's silver medals were eventually upgraded to gold at a second awards ceremony and the French judge was suspended for misconduct.The most famous coach of the University of Nevada, Las Vegas Runnin' Rebels basketball team, Jerry Tarkanian, was accused of both recruitment fraud and gambling fraud over the course of his career and was the subject of intense NCAA scrutiny.
Another form of this involves a team coach or other manager undertaking corporate espionage or another form of prohibited spying in order to obtain details about other teams' strategies and tactics.However, there was cheating proven by the Denver Broncos during their back to back titles in the late 90's to circumvent the league's salary cap and obtain and retain players that they would otherwise not have been able to.Circumvention of rules governing conduct and procedures of a sport can also be considered cheating.The 2007 New England Patriots videotaping controversy, in which the New England Patriots were found to have videotaped an opposing team from an unapproved location while trying to obtain defensive signals.As was the Pittsburgh Steelers use of, at the time legal, performance enhancers.The findings were corroborated in part by a Gallup survey.