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This frozen bison was found along the eastern shore of Chukchalakh Lake at an unnamed hill (558 m a.s.l.).

Fat samples from two bison showed two well-differenced areas, i.e.

Previously, we have demonstrated that a relict species of horse from the Ice Ages contained in the subcutaneous fat omega-3 (n-3) FAs in higher percentages than other present-day species, and later, after analysing the frozen fat of several Palaeolithic and Mesolithic mammals, we showed that the fat of single-stomached mammals often consumed by hunters at those times contained suitable amounts of n-3 and n-6 FAs, possibly in quantities sufficient to meet the today's recommended daily intake for good health.

The output of the analyses indicated high levels of polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) in the fatty tissues of mammoths and horses, while for bison the fat was mainly saturated.

This is so because bison are ruminants and therefore hydrogenate the carbon-carbon double bonds of the FAs during digestion and, hence, PUFAs are scarcely incorporated into the depot fat.

Conversely, single-stomached animals, such as elephants, rhinoceroses, and horses, are susceptible to changes in the FA composition in their adipose tissue as a result of the intake of fats having different FA profiles.

This paper reports on the FA profiles of the fat of some bison from the Preboreal and Boreal Holocene found in the permafrost of Siberia (Russian Federation), discussing the possibility of the use of this fat as a source of essential FAs for hunters in those times. priscus) from Siberia (Figure 1) were included in this study (Table 1), i.e.

a baby bison from Batagay (bison Batagay), a complete body of an adult male from the Yuka region (bison Yukagir; Figure 2), and a bison from Rauchua river (bison Rauchua), which were very close in time, all from the early Holocene (8,200; 9,300; and 8,000 years BP, respectively).In the late Pleistocene (120,000–10,000 years BP), the main part of Eurasia including eastern Siberia was inhabited by rich mammalian fauna, called the “Mammoth complex”.Typical components of this megafauna were mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.), woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis Blum.), Lena horse (Equus lenensis Russ.), and Pleistocene bison (Bison priscus Bojanus), as the most prominent species.brown and white, the latter being saturated fatty acid enriched, corresponding to an intermediate stage of adipocere formation, while the brown ones yielded α-linolenic acid in higher percentages than found in present-day bison.As demonstrated in this work, the subcutaneous fat of bison consumed by Mesolithic hunters contained amounts of n-3 fatty acids in higher quantities than those found in current bison; thus, the subcutaneous fat of bison could have contributed to meet today's recommended daily intake of essential fatty acids for good health in the Mesolithic to a greater extent than previously thought.It is assumed that this megafauna went extinct by the beginning of the Holocene; however, proof exits today that the Mammoth fauna existed in the early Holocene in eastern Siberia, including bison as typical species.